The ACS Course "BIOCHEMISTRY I (ANIMALS & HUMANS)" is based upon the following curriculum documentation. It was originally written to cover everything you see here; but has over the years been revised and expanded beyond this on several occasions.

BIOCHEMISTRY I (ANIMALS)

Nominal duration

100 hours

Module Purpose

On successful completion of this module the learner may be able to prepare for and perform basic biochemical applications related to animals, including humans.

Pre-requisites

There are no pre-requisites for this module.

Students doing the Advanced Diploma in Applied Science course must complete this module as a core study unit before starting stream or elective studies.

Content:

Focus should be on the learning outcomes and not on content. Some topics may not require in-depth teaching in this module as they will be addressed fully elsewhere.

In achieving the learning outcomes, the following topics should be addressed:

* introduction to biochemistry

* lipids and proteins

* enzymes

* nucleic acids

* thermo-regulation

* carbohydrate metabolism

* absorption

* acidity and alkalinity

* chemical analysis

* biochemical applications

Assessment method

The learning outcome may be assessed through:

* essay;

* short answer;

* written assignment;

* practical tasks (and samples);

* examination (1.5 hours).

Conditions of assessment

Assessment is based on successfully completing all set tasks, assignments and any other assessment methods listed above. Examinations will consolidate lessons to assess the learning progress of students. It will also act as a method of ensuring students meet the outcomes (refer to Document 1, Appendix 1)

Learning Outcome 1

Learning Outcome

Identify characteristics of common chemical compounds important in animal and human biochemistry.

Assessment Criteria

1.1 Explain the formulae of ten specified chemical compounds commonly found in animals and humans.

1.2 Calculate the percentages of elements contained in two specified chemical compounds.

1.3 Differentiate between characteristics of major groups of biochemicals including:

*carbohydrates

*proteins

*amino acids

*lipids

*nucleic acids

1.4 Compare differences between monosaccharides and polysaccharides.

1.5 Differentiate between plant and animal/human biochemistry, with three specific examples of biochemical processes which are unique to each.

Conditions and method of assessment

Relevant standards or extracts will be made available to students for reference during lessons.

Method of assessment

* written assignment;

* examination.

Learning Outcome 2

Learning Outcome

Explain the characteristics of major biochemical groups including; carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.

Assessment Criteria

2.1 Differentiate between a fat and an oil.

2.2 Explain the characteristics of a specified protein formula.

2.3 Compare two fibrous proteins with two globular proteins.

2.4 Explain the functions of carbohydrates in animals/humans.

2.5 Explain two commercial applications for lipids in the learners chosen industry.

2.6 Explain two commercial applications for proteins in the learners industry.

2.7 Explain two commercial applications for carbohydrates in the industry the learners industry.

Conditions and method of assessment

Relevant standards or extracts will be made available to students for reference during lessons.

Method of assessment

* written assignment;

* examination.

Learning Outcome 3

Learning Outcome

Explain the characteristics of chemicals which control biological processes in animals and humans, including enzymes and hormones.

Assessment Criteria

3.1 Distinguish between an enzyme and a hormone.

3.2 Explain how one specific enzyme functions in an animal/human.

3.3 Explain how one specific hormone functions in an animal/human.

3.4 Explain the relevance of hormones to the learners chosen industry sector.

3.5 Explain the relevance of enzymes to the learners chosen industry sector.

Conditions and method of assessment

Relevant standards or extracts will be made available to students for reference during lessons.

Method of assessment

* written assignment;

* examination.

 

Learning Outcome 4

Learning Outcome

Explain the role of nucleic acids in the biology of animals and humans.

Assessment Criteria

4.1 Define relevant terminology, including:

*nitrogenous base

*double helix model

*nucleotides

*pentose sugars.

4.2 Explain the importance of RNA in animals/humans, including:

*location in cells

*composition/structure

*functions.

4.3 Explain the importance of DNA in animals/humans, including:

*location in cells

*composition/structure

*functions.

4.4 Describe the biological and chemical differences between RNA and DNA.

4.5 Explain the role of ATP in providing energy for various cellular activities.

Conditions and method of assessment

Relevant standards or extracts will be made available to students for reference during lessons.

Method of assessment

* written assignment;

* examination;

* labelled diagrams.

Learning Outcome 5

 

Learning Outcome

Explain the role of thermo-regulation in animals and humans.

Assessment Criteria

5.1 Define relevant terminology, including:

*heat

*metabolic rate

*basal state

*fever

*heat stroke

*hypothermia.

5.2 Explain the mechanisms of body heat production in animals/humans.

5.3 Describe the homeostatic processes which regulate body temperature.

5.4 Explain the mechanisms of body heat loss in animals/humans.

Conditions and method of assessment

Relevant standards or extracts will be made available to students for reference during lessons.

 

Method of assessment

* written assignment;

* examination.

Learning Outcome 6

Learning Outcome

Explain the role of carbohydrate metabolism in animals and humans.

Assessment Criteria

6.1 Define relevant terminology, including:

*glycogenesis

*lipogenesis

*aerobic & anaerobic cellular respiration

*kinases

*carbohydrate loading

*glucose anabolism.

6.2 List the main biochemical processes involved in animal/human carbohydrate metabolism.

6.3 Explain glycolysis, including the sequence of chemical reactions involved.

6.4 Explain the Krebs cycle, including the sequence of chemical reactions involved.

6.5 Explain the electron transport chain, including the sequence of chemical reactions involved.

6.6 Explain differences in animal/human carbohydrate metabolism for a specified situation.

Conditions and method of assessment

Relevant standards or extracts will be made available to students for reference during lessons.

 

Method of assessment

* written assignment;

* examination.

Learning Outcome 7

Learning Outcome

Explain the processes of absorption in animals and humans.

Assessment Criteria

7.1 Define relevant terminology, including:

*absorptive state

*post absorptive state

*insulin

*cortisol

*epinephrine.

7.2 Explain the processes occurring during the absorptive (fed) state, including:

*biochemical reactions

*hormonal regulation

*sites of activity.

7.3 Explain the processes occurring during the post absorptive (fasting) state, including:

*biochemical reactions

*hormonal regulation

*sites of activity.

Conditions and method of assessment

Relevant standards or extracts will be made available to students for reference during lessons.

Method of assessment

* written assignment;

* examination;

* labelled drawings.

Learning Outcome 8

Learning Outcome

Identify the characteristics of acidity and alkalinity in relation to animals and humans.

Assessment Criteria

8.1 Define relevant terminology, including:

*acid

*alkaline

*neutral

*pH scale.

8.2 Describe three chemical buffering effects including:

*bicarbonate buffering system

*phosphate buffering system

*protein buffering system.

8.3 Explain the role of pH in the control of respiration.

8.4 Explain the importance of pH control of human blood.

8.5 Explain methods for controlling the pH of human blood.

8.6 Identify factors involved in controlling acidity and alkalinity in a specific case study.

Conditions and method of assessment

Relevant standards or extracts will be made available to students for reference during lessons.

Method of assessment

* written assignment;

* examination.

Learning Outcome 9

Learning Outcome

Develop simple chemical analysis skills relevant to testing animals and humans.

Assessment Criteria

9.1 Define relevant terminology, including:

*calibration

*electroconductivity

*chromatography

*colorimeter

*indicators.

9.2 Compare a chemical test kits (eg. indicator strips) with chemical meters (eg. haemoglobin meter), in terms of the following:

*accuracy

*ease of use

*portability

*maintenance

*calibration

*costs.

9.3 Explain the practical applications of various analytical techniques in the learners industry sector, including:

*chromatography (TLC, GC)

*colorimetry

*atomic absorption.

9.4 Determine the value of analytical techniques used in the learners industry sector, including:

*efficiency

*accuracy

*ease of use.

Conditions and method of assessment

Relevant standards or extracts will be made available to students for reference during lessons.

 

Method of assessment

* written assignment;

* examination.

Learning Outcome 10

Learning Outcome

Identify applications and uses for biochemical processes and products.

Assessment Criteria

10.1 Differentiate between chemical toxicity and tolerance.

10.2 Explain the implications of LD50 characteristics of five different chemical substances.

10.3 Explain the implications of half-life characteristics of five different chemical substances.

10.4 List the active toxins in ten poisonous plants or animals which commonly occur in the learners home locality.

10.5 Explain the effects of two naturally occurring toxins on the human body.

10.6 Explain the function and use of two different plants as medicines, for humans or animals.

10.7 Determine three different applications for animal tissue culture.

Conditions and method of assessment

Relevant standards or extracts will be made available to students for reference during lessons.

Method of assessment

* written assignment

* examination

This module contains learning outcomes that will require both theory and practical instruction.

As such, it will require resources to facilitate both on- and off-job delivery strategies.

These strategies may involve:

*co-operative registered off-job provider/employer delivery sharing available resources; delivery by an employer who is registered as an off-job provider, with qualified trainers in-house using unique resources to facilitate in- and off-job delivery.

Resource Requirements

The learner will be provided with:

* all manuals to complete this module and to meet competencies;

* notes appropriate to the topic of study;

* access to video lending library

* access to tutor assistance.

The learner will provide:

* writing materials;

* plant material to perform set tasks.