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Anatomy II (Human)

Course CodeBSC112
Fee CodeS4
Duration (approx)100 hours
QualificationStatement of Attainment

STUDY HUMAN ANATOMY ONLINE

Improve your understanding of the human body with this course on human anatomy. In this course, you'll explore the different types of anatomy. You'll also learn how the body's systems are integrated, how small changes can impact human health, and more. An advanced anatomy course developed for people wishing to develop a career in health and human sciences, paramedical jobs and alternative therapists, especially massage therapists and other health care professions working in close contact with the patients body.

Prerequisite: Human Anatomy and Physiology BSC101 (or equivalent).

  • Professional Development for anyone working in complementary medicine, health support, sport or fitness industries
  • A foundation for more advanced studies in health sciences
  • Advance your career prospects, lay a foundation for a more in depth understanding of the human body

Lesson Structure

There are 7 lessons in this course:

  1. Cytology
    • Common Organelles and Structures (eg. Plasma Membrane, Cytoplasm, Cytosol, Cytoskeleton, Nucleus, Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), Mitochondria, Golgi Apparatus, Ribosomes, Lysosome and Peroxisome)
    • Specialised Organelles and Structures (eg. Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasmic Reticulum, T-Tubules, Undulipodia and Microvilli)
    • The Anatomy of Cellular Division (Review, Characteristic Interphase Structures, Characteristic Mitosis Structures)
  2. Surface Anatomy
    • Anatomy
    • Terminology (Regions and Positions of the Body, Planes and Views of the Body, Locational and Directional Terminology, Descriptive Terms, Numerical Terms)
    • Surface Anatomy
    • Superficial Structures, Features and Markings (Head, Neck, Back, Anterior Torso, Upper Extremities and Lower Extremities).
    • Practical Use of Surface Anatomy (Inspection, Palpation, Auscultation, Percussion, Measuring Vital Signs, Blood Testing and Signs versus Symptoms)
  3. Systemic Anatomy I
    • Systemic Anatomy (Integumentary, Nervous, Endocrine, Immune etc)
    • Organisation of the Body
    • The integumentary System (Anatomy of the Skin and Anatomy of other Integumentary System Components)
    • The Nervous System (Brain, Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerve Anatomy, Divisions of the Nervous System)
    • The Cardiovascular System (Heart and the Vasculature)
    • The Renal System (Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder and Urethra)
  4. Systemic Anatomy II
    • The Endocrine System (Pineal Gland, Pituitary Gland, Hypothalamus, Thyroid, Parathyroids, Thymus, Pancreas, Adrenal Glands and Ovaries and Testes).
    • The Immune System (Thymus, Spleen, Bone Marrow and Lymphatic System)
    • The Male Reproductive System (External Components and Spermatogenesis in the Seminiferous Tubules of the Testes)
    • The Female Reproductive System (Uterus, Vagina, External Genitalia, Ovaries and Fallopian Tubes, Accessory Glands and the Breast and Mammary Tissue).
  5. Regional Anatomy I
    • Regional Anatomy (Integument, Peripheral Nervous System, Vasculature, Skeleton, Musculature)
    • Musculature (Brevi, Extensor, Indicis, Longus, Palmar etc).
    • Bone (Girdle, Notch, Spine, Tuberosity etc).
    • Vasculature and Miscellaneous - Axilla, Cubital, Palpate etc.
    • The Cranial Cavity - Bones of the Skull and Facial Bones
    • Thoracic Cavity (Oral and Nasal Cavities, Paranasal Sinuses, Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx, Larynx, Laryngeal Membranes, Ligaments and Muscles, Trachea, Bronchial Tree, the Lungs and Diaphragm)
    • The Abdominopelvic Cavity (Oesophagus, Stomach, Small Intestine and Large Intestine)
  6. Regional Anatomy II
    • The Upper Extremities - Anatomical features of (Humerus, Ulna, Radius, Carpals, Metacarpals, Phalanges; Musculature of the Upper Extremities, Innervation of the Upper Extremity, Vasculature of the Upper Extremity).
    • The Lower Extremities (Anatomical Features of - the Pelvis, the Femur, the Tibia, the Fibula, the Tarsals, the Metatarsals, the Phalanges, Innervation of the Upper Extremity and Vasculature of the Lower Extremities).
  7. Radiographic and Diagnostic Anatomy
    • Medical Imaging (X-Ray, CAT scan, MRI, PET Scan and Ultrasound)
    • Diagnostic Anatomy (Abdominopelvic Cavity, Abdominopelvic Quadrants)

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

What You Will Do

  • Describe the importance of the following structures of the eye: eyelids, eyelashes, and eyebrows.
  • What structures form the oral cavity? Briefly describe their importance.
  • Using the internet or other reference material, outline and describe otitis media and its causes.
  • Besides the eyes, ear, and mouth; what other structures can be studied without a microscope ? List at least ten.
  • Using the internet or other reference material, describe the three basic functions of the nervous system that are necessary to maintain homeostasis.
  • Using reference materials or the internet, distinguish between grey and white matter and describe where they are found and their differences.
  • Using the internet or other reference material define the following: resting membrane potential, depolarization, repolarization, polarized membrane, nerve impulse, depolarized membrane, repolarized membrane, and refractory period.
  • List and describe the structure of the four principle parts of the brain.
  • Compare and contrast neurons and neuroglia, describing both structure and function.
  • List the names and locations of the principal body cavities and their major organs.
  • List the names and locations of the abdominopelvic quadrants and regions.
  • In which quadrant would you feel the pain from appendicitis? From an inflamed liver or gallbladder problems? Problems with the sigmoid colon? Problems with the spleen?
  • Using the internet or other reference materials find a sample image of the listed medical imaging techniques.

Anatomy is an Important Foundation

Anatomy is and was the starting point of scientific investigation of the human body.  Without an understanding of structure we cannot fully understand function, for it is the structure and interrelation of body parts that permits their function.  In order to study anatomy, it is important to understand the different medical/scientific terms that are used to indicate location, relationship, components, numbers and so on.  Key terms are listed in the following tables, some will be familiar, but should be reviewed along with new terms, to ensure you are able to fully understand this course. 

Parts of The Body

Each body region has a specific function and houses specific structures, be that tissues, organs or glands, that enable the performance of the functions or are the reason for the functions.

The head contains the brain and pituitary gland which are protected by the skull. It also contains specific organs for all of the five senses, the nose, eyes, mouth and ears as well as skin, which are protected by facial structures, including the facial bones. The initial parts of the digestive system are also located in the head; the salivary glands, the oral cavity and the teeth. The orifices required for respiration as well as immune glands such as the tonsils are all located in the head.

The torso contains the majority of the vital organs (the exception being the brain, which is located in the head). It is divided into cavities housing sets of organs and also contains the major blood vessels, all protected by bones such as the ribs and verterbrae or muscle tissues.

The limbs attach to the torso and extend from it. They contain no vital organs but do contain some large blood vessels (brachial and femoral arteries).

• Vital organs
The brain, heart and liver. These are the organs that must be working in order for the human body to remain alive.

• Critical organs
These are organs which are partially redundant, you can survive if they are partially non-functional, or if one of the pair is not working. Kidneys and lungs are critical organs.

• Accessory organs
These are organs that improve function, health and quality of life, but are not essential to life. The spleen, eyes, ovaries are all accessory organs.

Looking Inside the Body

Medical imaging is particularly useful for studying the anatomy and in some cases physiology of deep structures and organs. It provides a non-invasive, generally safe option to often very invasive surgical investigations. There are a variety of imaging techniques currently in use today.

Example: X-Ray
The first imaging technique used in medicine. This involves the exposure of the body to electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation is produced by the movement of electrons in atoms. Some movements release energy in the form of photons which can then be absorbed by other atoms. The soft tissues of the body are made up primarily of small atoms, like hydrogen (1 electron), carbon (6 electrons) and oxygen (8 electrons) and do not absorb photons well. The hard tissues, such as bone are made of larger atoms, like calcium (20 electrons) which aborb photons much more readily. This is how the x-ray distinguishes bones from surrounding soft-tissues and why bones appear on the x-ray while areas of soft tissue do not.

 

HAVE YOU STUDIED HUMAN BIOLOGY BEFORE?

If not; you should consider our Introductory course first -click for details.  This course is designed to be a natural progression, following on from that Human Biology IA course; or a course of study for someone who has a foundation in human biology from some similar course.

 

Still incertain about what to study?

If you are; try contacting one of our human biology tutors -We offer a free course and career counselling service -click for details

 



Meet some of our academics

Gavin ColePsychologist, Educator, Author, Psychotherapist. B.Sc., Psych.Cert., M. Psych. Cert.Garden Design, MACA Gavin is both a highly experienced Psychologist and tutor. Gavin has over 25 years experience in the Psychology industry, and has been working with ACS since 2001. He has worked in both Australia and England, and has been involved in writing numerous books and courses in Psychology and Counselling
Jade SciasciaBiologist, Business Coordinator, Government Environmental Dept, Secondary School teacher (Biology); Recruitment Consultant, Senior Supervisor in Youth Welfare, Horse Riding Instructor (part-completed) and Boarding Kennel Manager. Jade has a B.Sc.Biol, Dip.Professional Education, Cert IV TESOL, Cert Food Hygiene.
Karen LeeNutritional Scientist, Dietician, Teacher and Author. BSc. Hons. (Biological Sciences), Postgraduate Diploma Nutrition and Dietetics. Registered dietitian in the UK, with over 15 years working in the NHS. Karen has undertaken a number of research projects and has lectured to undergraduate university students. Has co authored two books on nutrition and several other books in health sciences.


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