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Cardiorespiratory Health

Course CodeBSC301
Fee CodeS2
Duration (approx)100 hours
QualificationStatement of Attainment

ONLINE STUDY

CARDIORESPIRATORY HEALTHY

 

 The course focuses on the physiology of the blood, heart, vasculature, lungs and airways.  Students will gain insight into the vital processes that occur in the healthy cardiovasular and respiratory systems and the physiology, anatomy and biochemistry and basic physics driving these processes.  Comparison between the resting and active states, as well as the impact of medical conditions and other factors on cardiorespiratory performance is made, and students will discover and investigate the regulation of this vital multi-organ system. 

This course assumes previous study in Anatomy and Physiology (BSC101 Human Biology 1A or equivalent); or an equivalent level of knowledge.

Topics include pulmonary ventilation, gas exchange, gas laws, blood physiology, hemoglobin, oxygen and carbon dioxide transport, cardiac output, electrocardiograms, oxygen utilisation and energy production, cardiac output, lung function and more.

Lesson Structure

There are 7 lessons in this course:

  1. The Science of Blood
    • The Functions of Blood
    • Components of Blood
    • Blood Typing
    • Blood Cells
    • Hematopoiesis; Erythropoiesis, Leukopoiesis, Lymphopoiesis
    • Blood Cell function; Erythrocytes, Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Thrombocytes etc
    • The Immune Response
    • Haemostasis
    • Clotting Mechanism
    • Haemodynamics
    • Circulatory Networks
    • Blood Testing
    • Full Blood Count
    • Cross Matching
    • Blood Cultures
    • Arterial Blood Gas
    • Biochemical and Metabolic Tests
    • INR
    • Blood Disorders; Red & White Blood disorders, Blood Clotting, Poisoning
    • Lymphatic System
  2. Blood Pressure
    • Factors Affecting Blood Pressure; cardiac output, peripheral resistance, blood volume
    • How Blood Pressure is Measured
    • The Cardiac Cycle
    • Heart Muscle Cell Contraction
    • Electrical Control of the Heart Muscle Cells; Sinoatrial Node (SA Node), Atrioventricular n ode (AV Node), Bundle of His (Atrioventricular bundle), Purkinje Fibres
    • Blood Pressure Problems
    • Systolic hypertension, Diastolic hypertension and Hypertension
    • Distribution of Blood Flow
    • Regulating Heart Rate and Blood Pressure
    • Sensors
    • Problems with Heart Rate; variations, and other conditions including Myocardial infarction and Cardiac Tamponade
    • Electrocardiograms and their Interpretation
  3. Pulmonary Ventilation
    • The Respiratory System
    • Respiratory Epithelium
    • The Lungs
    • Lung Anatomy
    • Alveoli
    • Airway Anatomy
    • Nasal and oral cavities
    • Pharynx
    • Epiglottis
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi and bronchioles
    • Physiology of Breathing; Equilibrium, Pressure, Inspiration, Expiration
    • Physiological Measures of Lung Capacity and Function; Total Lung Capacity, Tidal Volume, Vital Capacity, Forced Vital Capacity, IRV, ERV, Functional Residual Capacity, MV, VO2 Max, etc
    • Effect of Exercise on Pulmonary Ventilation
  4. Gas Exchange & Transport
    • Gas Exchange in the Human Body
    • External Respiration
    • Oxygen Transport
    • Internal Respiration
    • Haemoglobin
    • Carbon Dioxide Transport
    • Biochemistry of Gas Exchange; Boyle’s Law, Charles’ Law, Dalton’s Law, Henry’s Law, etc
    • Factors Affecting Gas Exchange; Partial pressure Gradients, Gas Solubility, Membrane thickness, etc
    • Compliance
    • Respiratory Control
  5. Blood Flow & Gas Transport
    • Blood Flow; Volume, Target
    • Gas Transport
    • Arterial-Alveolar Gradient
    • Oxygen Transport
    • Factors Effecting Oxygen Release by Haemoglobin
    • The Bohr-Haldane Effect
    • Cellular Respiration
    • Energy Production; anaerobic and aerobic
    • Blood Flow During Exercise and Rest
  6. Cardio Respiratory Control
    • Cardio Respiratory Control and the Nervous System
    • Input Sensors
    • The CV Centre
    • High Brain Centres
    • Baroreceptors and Chemoreceptors
    • The Respiratory Centre
    • Starling’s Law
    • Capillaries
    • The Control of Heart and Lungs During Exercise
  7. Cardio Respiratory Disease
    • Cardiac Diseases and Injuries
    • Chronic Heart Failure
    • Congestive Heart Failure
    • Myocardial Infarction and Ischemia
    • Cardiovascular Diseases
    • Coronary Heart Disease
    • Atherosclerosis
    • Aneurysm
    • Vasculitis
    • Venous thrombosis
    • Varicose veins
    • Causes of Cardiovascular Disease; lifestyle, diet, obesity, genetics, smoking, hypertension, etc
    • Respiratory Disease
    • Asthma
    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
    • Emphysema
    • Cystic Fibrosis (CF)
    • Effects of Cardio Pulmonary Disease

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.


Prerequisites:

 There are no formal prerequisites; however, we assume students in this course do have a fundamental understanding of human biology at the level of Human Biology BSC101 or equivalent.

Learn to Understand the Science Aerobic Fitness

  • Apply that knowledge to improving your own fitness, or
  • To helping others improve their cardio respiratory fitness
  • There are a lot more options for aerobic exercise than most people realise!

The obvious exercises are swimming, jogging, cycling or working out in an aerobics exercise class. Other less obvious options include participation in many work or sporting activities. Some sports are more appropriate for aerobic conditioning than others though, just as some types of physical work will do more for aerobic fitness than others.

How often and How Hard Should one Exercise?

  • Some experts will suggest you should train at least 3 times a week.
  • Your heart rate should be raised, and maintained at an elevated level for at least 20 mins each time
  • To do this with a suitable warm up and cool down, requires 30 or 35 minutes at least. 

Therefore: You need to exercise at least 3 times a week for around 35 minutes or more each time!

  • Longer periods of exercise (perhaps 50 to 60 mins are even better).
  • More frequent exercise (perhaps even daily) can be very beneficial - provided you don't over stress the body. 
  • Train on alternate days for hard training. 

Excessively hard training on two consecutive days can create excess stress on joints, ligaments and muscles - and deplete muscle glycogen levels. One very hard session each week is adequate. You can train daily, but be sympathetic to how the body feels and do not persist if pain increases or the legs become very heavy (even if it is only a light day). There is always a danger of over-training, just as much as under-training!

Aerobic exercise should be tailored to meet the needs of the individual. For most people the main concern is their level of fitness - if they are not fit and exercise sparingly, they should probably undertake relatively low intensity, low impact and short duration exercises. In contrast, a person with above average fitness will need to exercise for longer periods at a higher intensity in order to maintain or improve their aerobic capacity.

There are many other types of people however, who require special consideration due to unique factors which can impact upon them when undertaking aerobic exercise. Some people have a temporary or permanent condition (physical or physiological) which affects what types of exercise they can or should do.

 



Meet some of our academics

Alison PearceUniversity Lecturer, Quality Assurance Manager, Writer and Research Technician. Alison originally graduated with an honors degree in science from university and beyond that has completed post graduate qualifications in education and eco-tourism. She has managed veterinary operating theatre, responsible for animal anesthesia, instrument preparation, and assistance with surgical techniques and procedures.
Jade SciasciaBiologist, Business Coordinator, Government Environmental Dept, Secondary School teacher (Biology); Recruitment Consultant, Senior Supervisor in Youth Welfare, Horse Riding Instructor (part-completed) and Boarding Kennel Manager. Jade has a B.Sc.Biol, Dip.Professional Education, Cert IV TESOL, Cert Food Hygiene.
Lyn QuirkM.Prof.Ed.; Adv.Dip.Compl.Med (Naturopathy); Adv.Dip.Sports Therapy Over 30 years as Health Club Manager, Fitness Professional, Teacher, Coach and Business manager in health, fitness and leisure industries. As business owner and former department head for TAFE, she brings a wealth of skills and experience to her role as a tutor for ACS.
Karen LeeNutritional Scientist, Dietician, Teacher and Author. BSc. Hons. (Biological Sciences), Postgraduate Diploma Nutrition and Dietetics. Registered dietitian in the UK, with over 15 years working in the NHS. Karen has undertaken a number of research projects and has lectured to undergraduate university students. Has co authored two books on nutrition and several other books in health sciences.


Check out our eBooks

Aqua FitnessLearn to do low impact exercise in water. It is great for rehabilitation after injury, weight loss, and general fitness. This e-book is full of well illustrated exercises to try and has been written for both exercise professionals and amateurs. It is the revised edition of a book by John Mason, originally published by Kangaroo Press (Simon & Schuster). Lots of illustrations. 121 pages
Aerobic FitnessAerobic fitness contributes more to your quality of life than perhaps any other aspect of fitness! This updated version of Aerobic Fitness is full of information about the body and its functions. It also contains detailed illustrations of which exercises to use for individual muscle groups. 93 pages. 64 illustrations.
Human BiologyFor any new student of human biology, being confronted with thousands of unfamiliar words can be overwhelming. It can also be difficult to identify which words you need to learn first. This book presents words that have been carefully selected as the most important for new biology students to learn and understand. It also provides more information about each word than is often found in traditional dictionaries, giving students a more in-depth understanding of the word's meaning. The book is intended as an aid to all new students of human biology.