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Human Nutrition and Food II

Course CodeBRE202
Fee CodeS2
Duration (approx)100 hours
QualificationStatement of Attainment

LEARN MORE THAN THE BASICS ABOUT HUMAN NUTRITION

  • Learn to plan menus, for better health.
  • Study anytime, anywhere and at your own pace
  • Better manage what you and your family eat

 

Good food choices can make your life a joy.

Bad choices can create health issues not only now, but in later life.

It is important to understand what you are putting into your body. Whether choosing food at the supermarket or deciding an order at a fancy restaurant, every choice you make today, will impact upon your state of well being in the future.

 

Lesson Structure

There are 8 lessons in this course:

  1. Cooking And Its Effect On Nutrition
  2. Food Processing And Its Effect On Nutrition
  3. Recommended Daily Intake Of Nutrients
  4. Vitamins
  5. Minerals
  6. Planning A Balanced Diet
  7. Assessing Nutritional Status & Needs
  8. Timing Of Meals & Needs For Special Groups

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

Aims

  • Determine appropriate food preparation for different foods, in relation to food value for human health.
  • Explain the characteristics of food processing techniques and their implications for human health.
  • Recommend daily food intakes for people with differing nutritional needs.
  • Manage dietary intake of more significant vitamins including B and C complex vitamins for good health.
  • Manage dietary requirements of significant minerals including calcium & iron for good health.
  • Plan in detail, an appropriate seven day diet plan, for an "average" adult.
  • Determine dietary needs of different individuals.
  • Plan diets to achieve different, specific purposes.
  • Plan diets for specific needs for people at different stages of life

What You Will Do

  • Determine the reasons for cooking food.
  • Compare different methods of cooking food in terms of their effect on both health and nutrition
  • Explain the effects on nutrition of cooking different types of foods, for different periods of time, including:
    • Meat
    • Fish
    • Eggs
    • Milk
    • Plant Foods.
  • Explain how meat can be ensured to be fit for human consumption in a raw state, such as in sushi and in smallgoods.
  • Distinguish between function, effects, and chemistry of different types of food additives, in food preparation, including:
    • Colours
    • Preservatives
    • Antioxidants
    • Vegetable gums
    • Flavourings
    • Thickeners
    • Anti caking agents
    • Bleaches
    • Emulsifiers
    • Humectants
    • Food acids
    • Mineral salts.
  • Evaluate taste and nutritional effects of adding different specified flavourings to five different specified food dishes, including:
    • Salt
    • Sugar
    • Herbs
    • Wines.
  • Explain, giving six examples of specific foods, how "freshness" of different specified foods, impacts upon nutrient status of those foods.
  • Explain how physical treatment of different specified foods (eg. cutting or crushing), may affect the food benefit of that food, including:
    • Digestibility
    • Keeping quality
    • Nutrient status.
  • Explain different heat treatments for food preservation; in terms of the process, function and affects; including:
    • Drying
    • Canning
    • Bottling
    • Pasteurisation.
  • Explain freezing of food, in terms of the process, function and affects.
  • Define examples of each of the following types of food additives:
    • Colours
    • Preservatives
    • Antioxidants
    • Vegetable gums
    • Flavourings
    • Thickeners
    • Anti caking agents
    • Bleaches
    • Emulsifiers
    • Humectants
    • Food acids
    • Mineral salts.
  • Distinguish between function, effects, and chemistry of different types of food additives, in food preservation, including:
    • Colours
    • Preservatives
    • Antioxidants
    • Vegetable gums
    • Flavourings
    • Thickeners
    • Anti caking agents
    • Bleaches
    • Emulsifiers
    • Humectants
    • Food acids
    • Mineral salts.
  • Analyse in a report, the effects of food additives found in three different supermarket food items, selected by the learner.
  • Explain problems that may result from food additives including:
    • allergic reactions
    • hyperactivity in children.
  • Explain different dehydration processes, in terms of the process, function and affects.
  • Explain use of food processing techniques applied to six different common foods with respect to food quality, storage life and cost.
  • Compare the use of different food processing techniques on the same food, through in terms of the process, function and effect.
  • Demonstrate five different food processing techniques, by independently preparing samples to a commercial standard.
  • Compare recommended dietary intake information from three different sources.
  • Explain how food requirements vary, in terms of components and quality, at different ages, including:
    • Babies
    • Children
    • Teenagers
    • Young adults
    • Elderly people
  • Recommend daily food intake requirements for a variety of four different people who the learner is familiar with (e.g. elderly, young children, active young adults), listing components of a typical daily intake together with a profile of the person.
  • List quality food sources of C complex vitamins in order of richest to poorest source.
  • List quality food sources of B complex vitamins in order of richest to poorest source.
  • Explain nutrient disorders associated with three different significant vitamin imbalances, including vitamin B complex, vitamin C, and one other vitamin.
  • Evaluate two different people the learner is familiar with, with respect to vitamin intake, lifestyle and health status, to determine if vitamin B & C needs are being satisfied.
  • List food sources of calcium in order of richest to poorest source.
  • List food sources of iron in order of richest to poorest source.
  • Distinguish nutrient disorders associated with calcium and iron imbalances, in terms of diagnosis and significance.
  • Evaluate two different people the learner is familiar with, with respect to mineral intake, lifestyle and health status, to determine if mineral requirements including calcium and iron needs, are being met.
  • Develop a questionnaire to analyse the dietary requirements of a person.
  • Analyse the diet, lifestyle and general health of three different individuals and compare the individuals analysed.
  • Recommend aspects of diet which could be improved for individuals analysed.
  • Explain discrepancies detected between different sources of dietary recommendations.
  • Conduct a self assessment of dietary practices, determining in a summary report, areas of deficiency in the learners normal diet.
  • Explain the significance of considering medical history when diet planning.
  • Prepare an appropriate diet plan over a seven day period, for an "average" adult.
  • Compare changes in dietary requirements for people at different stages of life,including: Nursing mothers, Babies, Young children, Teenagers, Young adults, Elderly.
  • Develop a five day menu for a ten year old child.
  • Prepare a one day menu for an immobile elderly person.
  • List unique dietary requirements for different types of people including: Weight lifters, People suffering obesity, People with coronary disease, Diabetics, People with gastric problems.
  • Plan a three day menu for a serious weight lifter.
  • Plan a diet for an obese person wishing to reduce weight.
  • Plan a healthy diet for a thin person wishing to gain weight.

Assessing nutritional status and needs

We all know that there are certain dietary components we require to meet our nutritional needs. Nutritional status and nutritional requirements differ depending on a person’s age; whether a person has a disease/condition; what life choices a person makes e.g. vegetarianism; cultural beliefs; and the environment a person is in.

 

What are the nutrients to consider in a vegetarian diet?

Protein
You don't need to eat foods from animals to have enough protein in your diet. Plant proteins alone can provide enough of the essential and non-essential amino acids, as long as sources of dietary protein are varied and caloric intake is high enough to meet energy needs. Soy proteins are a good vegetarian protein source. Whole grains, legumes, vegetables, seeds and nuts are other sources.
All contain both essential and non-essential amino acids. You don't need to consciously combine these foods ("complementary proteins") within a given meal.

Iron
Vegetarians may have a greater risk of iron deficiency than non-vegetarians. The richest sources of iron are red meat, liver and egg yolk, which are all high in cholesterol. However, dried beans, spinach, enriched products, brewer's yeast and dried fruits are all good plant sources of iron.

Vitamin B12
This comes naturally only from animal sources. Vegans need a reliable source of vitamin B12. It can be found in some fortified (not enriched) breakfast cereals, fortified soy beverages, some brands of nutritional (brewer's) yeast and other foods (check the labels), as well as vitamin supplements.

Vitamin D
Vegans should have a reliable source of vitamin D. Vegans who don’t get much sunlight may need a supplement.

Calcium
Studies show that vegetarians absorb and retain more calcium from foods than non-vegetarians do. Vegetable greens such as spinach, kale and broccoli, and some legumes and soybean products, are good sources of calcium from plants. Vegans should take care to ensure they are getting enough calcium each day and consider a supplement.

Zinc
Zinc is needed for growth and development. Good plant sources include grains, nuts and legumes. Shellfish are an excellent source of zinc. Take care to select supplements containing no more than 15-18 mg zinc. Supplements containing 50 mg or more may lower HDL ("good") cholesterol in some people.

Vegan diets for children

Vegetarian diets are generally considered to be very healthy, for both adults and children, however, for vegans who wish to raise children vegan, professional assistance and guidance in establishing, altering with age and maintaining a completely balanced diet is very important. Failure to thrive is more common in vegan children and weight and height should be monitored. Vegan diets are generally not advisable for babies and young children as it can be difficult to ensure they get all the nutrients required.  However, with care it is possible to raise a child on such a diet.

Teenage vegans have nutritional needs that are the same as any other teenager. The years between 13 and 19 are times of especially rapid growth and change. Nutritional needs are high during these years. The teenage vegan should follow the same recommendations that are made for all vegans, namely to eat a wide variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, plenty of leafy greens, whole grain products, nuts, seeds, and legumes. Protein, calcium, iron, and vitamin B12 are nutrients teenage vegans should be aware of.

Those exercising strenuously (marathon runners, for example) may need slightly more protein than the RDI, but generally, this is not an enormous difference. Excess protein that is not utilised will simply be stored as fat.  Fruits, fats, and alcohol do not provide much protein, and so a diet based only on these foods would have a good chance of being too low in protein. Vegans eating varied diets containing vegetables, beans, grains, nuts, and seeds rarely have any difficulty getting enough protein as long as their diet contains enough energy (calories) to support growth. There is no need to take protein supplements. There is no health benefit to eating a very high protein diet and it will not help in muscle building.  In fact, in excessive amounts protein will have toxic effects.  Excess will first be converted to and stored as fat, not muscle.  Dehydration can occur and calcium lost in the urine.

During adolescence, calcium is used to build bones. The density of bones is determined in adolescence and young adulthood, and so it is important to include three or more good sources of calcium in a teenager's diet every day. Cow's milk and dairy products do contain calcium. However, there are other good sources of calcium such as tofu processed with calcium sulphate, green leafy vegetables including collard greens, mustard greens, and kale, as well as tahini (sesame butter), fortified soymilk, and fortified orange juice.

By eating a varied diet, a vegan can meet his or her iron needs, while avoiding the excess fat and cholesterol found in red meats such as beef or pork. To increase the amount of iron absorbed from a meal, eat a food containing vitamin C as part of the meal. Citrus fruits and juices, tomatoes, and broccoli are all good sources of vitamin C. Foods that are high in iron include broccoli, raisins, watermelon, spinach, black-eyed peas, blackstrap molasses, chickpeas, and pinto beans.

It is important to consume adequate vitamin B12 during adolescence. Vitamin B12 is not found in plants. Some cereals have vitamin B12 (check the label). Red Star Vegetarian Support Formula nutritional yeast supplies B12.

 

Why study our course?

The Human Nutrition II course is a 100 hour course which will increase your knowledge of food in the context of food value for human health.
As well as increasing your knowledge, it will increase your career and job prospects by showing you are interested in learning more than the basics about human nutrition.
If you would like to learn more, then enrol now! You can start at any time.

 

We also produce eBooks that may be of interest to you, such as -

 

HUMAN NUTRITION

It's surprising how little most people know about the human body and how it works. If we all spent just a small amount of time educating ourselves, we would save years in terms of health problems and hundreds of pounds otherwise spent on health care.

 

 

And NUTRITIONAL THERAPY

 It's amazing how little people know about their bodies and yet still expect them to function in an energetic and efficient manner. We eat all sorts of rubbish, but you wouldn't put the wrong fuel in your car and still expect it to drive smoothly. This e-book will give you a great overview of the human nutrition industry in all its facets.

 



Meet some of our academics

Adriana Fraser Businesswoman, writer, teacher, consultant, horticulturist and sustainable living expert for more than 30 years. Adriana has worked with ACS for over 30 years. She has contributed to dozens of books(including Australia's national Grass Roots Magazine) since the early 1980's and continues to be actively involved as a contributor to Home Grown magazine and other publications. Adriana has a Cert.Child Care., Adv.Cert.App.Mgt., Cert in Assessment and Training., Cert.Hort., Adv.Dip.Hort.
Jade SciasciaBiologist, Business Coordinator, Government Environmental Dept, Secondary School teacher (Biology); Recruitment Consultant, Senior Supervisor in Youth Welfare, Horse Riding Instructor (part-completed) and Boarding Kennel Manager. Jade has a B.Sc.Biol, Dip.Professional Education, Cert IV TESOL, Cert Food Hygiene.
Karen LeeNutritional Scientist, Dietician, Teacher and Author. BSc. Hons. (Biological Sciences), Postgraduate Diploma Nutrition and Dietetics. Registered dietitian in the UK, with over 15 years working in the NHS. Karen has undertaken a number of research projects and has lectured to undergraduate university students. Has co authored two books on nutrition and several other books in health sciences.
Lyn QuirkM.Prof.Ed.; Adv.Dip.Compl.Med (Naturopathy); Adv.Dip.Sports Therapy Over 30 years as Health Club Manager, Fitness Professional, Teacher, Coach and Business manager in health, fitness and leisure industries. As business owner and former department head for TAFE, she brings a wealth of skills and experience to her role as a tutor for ACS.


Check out our eBooks

Aerobic FitnessAerobic fitness contributes more to your quality of life than perhaps any other aspect of fitness! This updated version of Aerobic Fitness is full of information about the body and its functions. It also contains detailed illustrations of which exercises to use for individual muscle groups. 93 pages. 64 illustrations.
Human NutritionBoth a text for students, or an informative read for anyone who wants to eat better. While covering the basics, the book approaches nutrition a little differently here to some other books, with sections covering ”Modifying diet according to Genetic Disposition or Lifestyle”, “How to find Reliable Information on Nutrition” and “Understanding how Diet relates to Different Parts of the Body” (including Urinary, Digestive, Respiratory and Circulatory System, the Brain, etc). This ebook was written to complement the ACS Nutrition I course, and provides a solid foundation for anyone wanting to grasp a fundamental understanding of Human Nutrition. 41 pages
HerbsHerbs are fascinating plants, mystical and romantic. They have a rich history dating back centuries. Used by monks, apothecaries and ‘witches’ in the past, herbs are undergoing a revival in interest. They are easy to grow, scented, culinary and medicinal plants. In a formal herb garden or peppered throughout the garden, herbs rarely fail! Find out how they are used as medicines, for cooking, perfumes and more. This book has nine chapters covering the following topics: an introduction to herbs, cultivation, propagation, pest and diseases, herb gardens, an A-Z plant directory, using herbs, features for herb gardens, herbs in pots - 113 colour photos 61 pages
Nutritional TherapyDiscover how the way you eat can impact upon the affects of an illness. This book is unique, written by our health and nutritional scientists. Chapters cover: “Scope and Nature of Nutritional Therapy”, “How different factors Interact with Nutrition”, “Different Ways” and “Appropriate Therapeutic Responses for Different Health Issues” Thirty different conditions are covered from Mental Illness and Gastritis to Coeliac Disease and Osteoporosis.