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Qualification - Certificate In Psychology

Course CodeVPS002
Fee CodeCT
Duration (approx)600 hours
QualificationCertificate

STUDY PSYCHOLOGY AT HOME AND LEARN MORE ABOUT THIS FASCINATING SUBJECT.

WORK WHILE YOU LEARN!
  • Gain a qualification in psychology in the comfort of your own home
  • Work at your own pace
  • Psychology is a wide field, with specialisms in business, children, adolescents, biology, life coaching, counselling and many more.
  • Studying psychology can help improve your job and career prospects
  • AND ensure you have a rewarding and fulfilling job.
  • Accredited by IARC (International Accreditation and Recognition Council)
 

COURSE STRUCTURE

The course has six modules. There are two core modules of Introduction to Psychology and Psychology and Counselling. 

You then choose four elective modules from a range of modules. You can find more detailed information on the modules below.
 

CORE MODULES

Introduction to Psychology
 
There are seven lessons in this course, as follows: 
  1. The nature and scope of Psychology - Different approaches to psychology. It's all common sense isn't it? Key issues in psychology, free will and determinism, applying psychology, developing questionnaires.
  2. Neurological basis of behaviour - Structures of the nervous system, central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, how nerves transmit messages, the brain and method, methods of investigating the brain, brain damage, the strange case of Phineas Gage, split brain operations, localisation of function.
  3. Environmental effects on behaviour - Learning and behaviour, modelling, conditioning, extinction, punishment, learning and memory, memory improvement strategies,
  4. Consciousness and perception - Status of consciousness in psychology, nature of consciousness, relationship between consciousness and perception, unconscious and subconscious, altered state of consciousness,  day dreams, sleeping and dreaming, chemically altered perception, perception, selective attention, factors affecting perception, perceptual biases.
  5. Personality - Theories of personality, personality traits, theoretical approaches to human personality, id, ego and superego, Oedipus Complex, Electra Complex, psychological defence mechanisms, genes and personality, personality disorders, multi-trait theories.                                                     
  6. Psychological development - Nature vs nurture, environment and development, stages of development, moral development, psychosexual development, psychosocial development, adolescence, adult psychological development, criticisms of stage theories.
  7. Needs, drives and motivation - motivation, behaviourist theories of human motivation, drives, Maslow's theory of human motivation, complementary and conflicting motives.
Psychology and Counselling

There are 7 lessons in this course:

  1. Stress
    • Introduction
    • The mind to body connection
    • How to recognise stress
    • What happens to the body when you experience stress
    • The physiological response
    • Chronic and acute stress
    • Erikson's psycho social stages
    • Oral sensory stage
    • Anal muscular stage
    • Genital locomotor stage
    • Latency stage
    • Adolescence
    • Young adulthood
    • Middle adulthood
    • Late adulthood
    • Social adjustment
    • Relationship betreen stress and heart disease
    • What are the basic sources of stress
    • Why some people suffer more
    • How to deal with stress
    • Defence mechanisms
  2. Abnormal Behaviour
    • Definition of abnormality
    • Deviation from statistical norms
    • Deviation from social norm
    • Maladaptiveness in behaviour
    • Personal distress
    • Disability
    • Wakefield's harmful dysfunction concept
    • Psychologically healthy individuals
    • Deviation in character
    • Classification of mental disorders
    • Anxiety disordersMood disorders
    • Prevalence of depression
    • Treatment of depression
    • Schizophrenia
    • Substance related disorder
    • Disorders diagnosed in childhood
    • Delerium, Dementia, Amnestic and Cognitive disorders
    • Problems with classification
  3. Individual Behaviour
    • Pro social or Altruistic behaviour
    • When do children first exhibit pro social behaviour
    • Socialisation
    • Conformity
    • Family influence
    • Disciplinary measures
    • Sibling influence
    • Influence of family structure
    • Influence of school
    • Praise
    • Influence of peers
    • Heiders Balance theory
    • Dissonance theory
    • Cognitive dissonance
  4. Group Behaviour
    • Social considerations
    • Temporary group
    • Organised group
    • Organisational groups
    • The influence of groups
    • Industrial groups
  5. Methods of Dealing with Abnormalities
    • Professionals in counselling and psychology
    • Therapist techniques
    • Transference
    • Directiveness and non directiveness
    • Systematic Desensitisation
    • Behaviour therapies
    • Psychoanalytical approach
    • Psychoanalytic techniques
    • Humanistic therapy
    • Eclectic approach
  6. Conflict Resolution
    • Introduction
    • Conflict handling techniques
    • Anger
    • Negotiation
    • Joint problem solving
    • Problems with negotiation
    • Mediation
    • Procedure
    • Running a mediation process in a conflict situation
    • Agreements or contracts
    • Suggested timetable for a mediation session
  7. Interpersonal Communication Skills
    • Introduction
    • Communication channels
    • Effective communication
    • Awareness
    • Communication skills
    • Hearing verbal messages
    • Perceiving non verbal messages
    • Responding
    • Verbal and non verbal communication
    • Body language
    • Communication barriers
    • Self awareness
    • Self esteem
    • Specific skills: listening, paraphrasing, reflective responses, etc
    • Conversation development
    • Professional relationship building

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

MORE ON THE ELECTIVE MODULES
You will choose FOUR modules from the list given below.
 
Biopsychology

There are 7 lessons in this course:

  1. Introduction
    • Types of external and internal stimuli, mind-body debate, introduction to the nervous system.
  2. The senses
    • Sensory input, sensory perception, description of the major senses.
  3. The Nervous System
    • Description of the neurons, the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, including the autonomic nervous system.
  4. The Endocrine System
    • Effect of hormones on behaviour and physiology, association of endocrine system and nervous system, connection between external and internal stimuli.
  5. Stress
    • Types of stressors, physical effects of stress, personality & stress.
  6. Emotions
    • Homeostasis, eating disorders, physiological responses to emotions, theories of emotion.
  7. Consciousness
    • Degrees of consciousness, awareness & attention, altered states of consciousness.

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

Child Psychology

There are 12 lessons in this course:

  1. Introduction to Child Psychology
    • Levels of development, nature or nurture, isolating hereditary characteristics, Cause versus correlation, continuity versus discontinuity, cross sectional and Longitudinal studies, Reliability of verbal reports
  2. The Newborn Infant
    • The Interactionist Approach, Range of Reaction, Niche Picking, Temperament Stimulus seeking, Emotional Disturbances During Pregnancy
  3. States & Senses of the Infant
    • Sensory Discrimination, Infant States (sleep, Inactivity, Waking, Crying etc), Why are Psychologists so concerned with defining and describing these infant states?, Habituation, Crying, Soothing a Distressed Baby, Sound Discrimination, Smell and Taste Discrimination, Visual Discrimination, Depth Perception, Oral Sensitivity
  4. Learning
    • Habituation, Vicarious Learning, Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, Reinforcement, The Importance of Learning Control, etc
  5. Emotions and Socialisation
    • Producing and Recognising Emotional Expression, Smiling, Biological Explanation, Perceptual Recognition Explanation, The Mother-Child Attachment, Freudian Approach Bowlby's Approach, Social Learning Approach, Harlow's Approach, The Role of Cognition in Attachment Formation, Maternal Attachment, Fear, Social Learning, Perceptual Recognition, Woman's Duel Role as Mothers and Workers, Day Care.
  6. Cognitive Development
    • Developing the ability to reason.
  7. Language Development
    • Is language learned, or are we genetically programmed with it, The Social Learning Approach, The Hypothesis testing Approach, Under extending
  8. Intelligence
    • Measuring Intelligence, Cultural Bias, IQ, Testing Intelligence as a tool.
  9. Socialisation: Part A
    • Social Cognation -self awareness, -awareness of others as individuals in their own right, -the development of empathy, -taking turns, -having a point of view/perspective,-ability to see something from another persons perspective. Friendships, Social Scripts Pretend Play
  10. Morality
    • Moral development, Aggression & Altruism, Freud's Approach, Piaget's Approach, Kohlberg's Approach
  11. Sexuality
    • Freuds phases (oral phase, anal phase, phallic phase, latent phase, genital phase) The Acquisition of Gender & Role Identity, Concept of psycho-social development
  12. Socialisation: Part B
    • The Family Influence, Discipline, Siblings, Family Structures, School Influence, Peer Influence, Acceptance & Rejection, Imitation & Reinforcement.

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

Counselling Skills I

There are 8 lessons in this course:

  1. Learning specific skills:
    • What is Counselling
    • Perceptions of Counselling
    • Differences between Counsellors, Psychotherapists, Clinical Psychologists and Psychiatrists
    • Counelling Theories
    • Empathy
    • Transferrence
    • Directiveness, non directiveness
    • Behavioural Therapies
    • Systematic Desensitisation
    • Positive Reinforcement and Extinction
    • Goals of Psychoanalytical Approach
    • Defense Mechanisms (Repression, Displacement, Rationalisation, Projection, Reaction Formulation, Intellectualisation, Denial, Sublimation)
    • Use of Psychoanalytical Psychotherapy
    • Psychoanalytic Techniques
    • Analytic Framework
    • Free Associations
    • Interpretation
    • Dream Analysis
    • Resistance & Transferance
    • Humaniustic Therapy
    • Evaluating the Effectiveness of Therapies and Counsellors
    • Case Studies
    • Methods of Learning
    • Micro Skills
    • Triads
    • Modelling
    • Online and Telephone Counselling
    • Telemental Health
    • Clinical Considerations
  2. Listening & bonding:
    • Scope of Listening and Bonding
    • Meeting and greeting
    • Creating a Safe Environment
    • Location
    • Time and Duration of Sessions
    • Privacy in Telephone and online counselling
    • Showing warmth on the phone
    • The contract
    • Helping the client relax
    • Listening with intent
    • Minimal Responses
    • Non Verbal Behaviour
    • Use of Voice
    • Use of Silense
    • Case Studies
    • Active Listening
    • Dealing with Silent Phone Calls
  3. Reflection:
    • Non Directive Counselling
    • Paraphrasing
    • Feelings
    • Reflection of Feeling
    • Client Responses to Reflection of Feelings
    • Reflection of Content and Feeling
    • Case Studies
  4. Questioning:
    • Open & Closed Questions
    • Other types of Questions (Linear, Information seeking, Strategic, Reflectivew, Clarification, etc)
    • Questions to Avoid
    • Goals of Questioning
    • Identification
    • Assessment
    • Intervention
    • Case Studies
  5. Interview techniques:
    • Summarising
    • Application
    • Confrontation
    • Reframing
    • Case Studies
    • Perspective
    • Summary
  6. Changing beliefs and normalising:
    • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
    • Changing Self-Destructive Beliefs
    • Irrational Beliefs
    • Normalising
    • Case Studies
    • Designing a Questionnaire
  7. Finding solutions:
    • Moving Forward
    • Choices (Reviewing, Creating, Making choices)
    • Facilitating Actions
    • Gestalt Awareness Circle
    • Psychological Blocks
    • Case Study
  8. Ending the counselling:
    • Terminating the session
    • Closure
    • Further Meetings
    • Dependency
    • Confronting Dependency
    • Chronic Callers
    • Terminating Silent Phone Calls
    • Silent Endings
    • Case Study
    • Other Services

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

Educational Psychology

There are 7 lessons in this course:

  1. Introduction -Development & Learning Theory
    • Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development; Schemes; Assimilation and Accommodation; Equilibration; Piaget’s Stages of Development.
  2. Behavioural Learning
    • The Evolution of Behavioural Theories of Learning; Thorndike’s Theory of the Law of Effect; Skinner’s Theory of Operant Conditioning; Principles of Behavioural Learning; Reinforcers; Positive and Negative Reinforcement; The Premack Principle
  3. Information Processing
    • Information Processing Theory; A Model of Information Processing; Perception; Gestalt Psychology; Attention; Short-Term Memory; Long-Term Memory; Division of Long-Term Memory
  4. Memory Retention & Loss
    • Remembering and Forgetting; Interference; Inhibition and Facilitation ; Primacy and Recency; Learning Strategies
  5. Individual Needs
    • Effective Instruction;The QAIT Model; Quality of Instruction; Appropriate Levels of Instruction; Incentive;Time; Between-Class Ability Grouping; Within Class Ability Grouping; Effective Use of Ability Groups; Mastery Learning; Outcomes-Based Education; Individualised Instruction
  6. Constructivist Learning
    • What is the Constructivist View; Top Down or Bottom Up Processing; Generative Learning; Discovery Learning; Reception Learning; Activating Prior Knowledge
  7. Motivation
    • Intrinsic Motivation; Extrinsic Motivation; Factors Affecting Motivation
    • Motivational Theories (Behavioural Learning Theory; Human Needs Theory; Dissonance Theory; Cognitive Dissonance Theory; Personality Theory; Attribution Theory; Expectancy Theory); Improving Motivation (Nurturing Interest/Curiosity; Providing Incentive to Learn)

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

Industrial Psychology

There are 10 lessons in this course:

  1. Introduction
    • Free Will versus Determinism, Developmental and Interactive Expressions of Behaviour, NATURE versus NURTURE, Influence of Environment on Learning Behaviour, Modelling and Conformity, Conditioning involves Certain Environmental Factors which Encourage Learning to Take Place, Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, Reinforcement & Punishment
  2. Understanding the Employees Thinking
    • Sensation and perception, thinking and day dreaming, the Gestalt approach, unconscious and conscious psychic elements. explaining behaviour, knowledge of brain processes,personal interpretation of a given situation, instinct.
    • Terminology including: Mating, Curiosity, Maternal, Acquiring, Repulsion, Constructiveness, Rivalry, Laughter, Fighting, Walking, Swallowing, Play, Imitation, Sleep, Modesty, Domineering, Religion, Self Asserting, Sneezing, Thirst, Cleanliness, Workmanship, Parenting, Food seeking, Flight, Collecting, Sympathy.
  3. Personality & Temperament
    • Mature & immature temperaments (eg. Sanguine, Melancholic, Choleric, Phlegmatic), emotional types, fear, intelligence, knowledge, deviation, etc
  4. Psychological Testing
    • The Application Form; Psychological Test; The Interview; Intelligence Tests; Laws of Learning; Devising Tests; Selecting Appropriate Tests.
  5. Management & Managers
    • Qualities of Managers, Understanding morale, discipline, training, etc
  6. The Work Environment
    • Noise, Space, Light, Temperature, Speed of Work, etc. Accidents, Breakages, Fatigue etc.
  7. Motivation and Incentives
    • Maslows model of self actualisation,Security, Money, Ambition, Companionship, Social reinforcement, Labour wastage, etc
  8. Recruitment
    • Ways of seeking applicants, types of interview, ways of selecting staff.
  9. Social Considerations
    • Group Behaviour, Conformity, Industrial Groups, THE HAWTHORNE EFFECT
  10. Abnormalities and Disorders
    • Psychosis Neurosis Personality Disorders, Variance, Partial Disability (eg. arm.leg injuries; epilepsy, digestive disorders etc), The Psycho Neurotic

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

Marketing Psychology

There are 8 lessons in this course:

  1. People as Consumers
    • Scope and nature of marketing
    • Reasons for marketing
    • Types of customers: loyal, discount, needs based, wandering, impulse
    • Economic, economic, personal, apathetic shoppers
    • Understanding reward options: rational, sensory, social, ego satisfaction
    • Influence on customers
    • Physical factors
    • Consumer problems
    • Attitudes
    • Beliefs
    • Affects
    • Behavioural intention
  2. Market Segmentation
    • Geographic
    • Demographic
    • Age
    • Sex
    • Socio-economic
    • Geodemographic
    • Psychological segmentation
    • Segmentation by usage
    • Segmentation by benefit
    • Global segmentation
    • Entry into foreign markets
    • Total Product concept
    • Personal influences
    • Diffusion of new products
  3. Internal Influences Perception & Personality
    • The senses: vision, hearing and smell.
    • Multi sensual marketing
    • Thresholds of awareness
    • Sensory adaptation
    • Attention
    • Selective perception
    • Perceptual distortion
    • Perceptual cues
    • Gestalt psychology
    • The Phi phenomenon
    • Subliminal perception
    • Product image and self image
    • Personality theory and application to marketing
    • The MMPI
    • The TATT
    • The Rorschach Ink Blot Test
    • Non Freudian and Freudian theories
    • Self theory
    • Self image marketing
    • Trait theory
    • Brand personality
    • Relationship segmentation
  4. Internal Influences -Motivation and Awareness
    • Learning
    • Behavioural approach
    • Classical conditioning
    • Operant conditioning
    • Cognitive approach
    • Memory and marketing
    • Modelling
    • Motivation
    • Maslow's hierachy of needs
    • Different motivations
    • Inertia
    • Involvement
    • Antecedents of involvement
    • Properties of involvement
    • Outcomes of involvement
    • Specific needs
    • Unconscious motivation
    • Creating needs
    • Semiotics
  5. Social Influences
    • Understanding society
    • Family influences
    • Family changes
    • Family lifecycle
    • Households
    • Socialisation
    • Institutional affects
    • Consumer socialisation
    • Family consumer decisions
    • Roles
    • Conflict resolution
    • Changing roles
    • Social and developmental influences
    • Influences on children
    • Marketing and advertising
    • Small groups, Formal and informal groups
    • Membership and reference groups
    • Reference groups and consumer behaviour
    • Variability of products
    • Differences in consumer susceptibility
    • Influence of social class
    • Inheritance
    • Measuring class, class categories and changing class
    • Marketing and Consumer behaviour
    • Cultural influences, communication, ideals and actualities
    • Differences in culture: sub cultures, ethnicity, changes in culture
  6. Consumerism
    • Why study the consumer
    • What is a consumer
    • History of consumerism
    • Changes in consumer experience
    • The supplier
    • Business ethics
    • International ethics
    • The market place
    • Consumer action
    • False and deceptive advertising
    • Methods of false advertising misrepresentation, insufficient details, price based methods etc.
  7. Communication and Persuasion
    • Attitudes and the concept of attitude
    • How attitudes are changed
    • Practical applications for marketing
    • Message evaluation and selection
    • Message execution
    • Celebrity testimonials
    • What words sell
  8. Deciding to Buy
    • Making a decision
    • Rational decisions
    • Heuristic Procedures
    • The decision making process -step by step
    • Merchandising
    • Trend toward home shopping

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

Sports Psychology

There are 8 lessons in this course:

  1. Introduction
    • Performance Psychology, Exercise Psychology, Environmental Influences, Aspects of Sports Psychology, Applying Sports Psychology.
  2. Psychological Traits of Successful Athletes
    • Personality Inventory, Cognitive Techniques.
    • State of Mind.
  3. Anxiety & Arousal
    • Anxiety, Physiology of Anxiety, Psychology of Anxiety, Arousal, How to Maximise Psychological State, Focusing (or Centering).
  4. Motivation
    • Motivation is the internal impulse that causes increasingly energetic action in a particular direction. Basic Principles, Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation Factors Affecting Motivation, Movitation for fun, Slimming for fun.
  5. Aggression
    • Mental Rehearsal, Error Parking, Using Self Consciousness, Word Association, Anger, Conflict,Measuring Aggression, Simulated Practice, e-Event Procedure, Reliving Success, Positive, Conflict Handling Techniques.
  6. Leadership & Coaching
    • A Coach’s Role, Getting Attention, Questioning, Punishment.
  7. Team Dynamics
    • Group cohesion,Forming, Storming,Norming,Performing, Traits of an Effective Team,
    • Suitable membership,Appropriate Leadership, Commitment to the Team, Concern for Achieving, Effective Work Methods, Well Organised Team Procedures, Ability To Take Criticism, Creative Strength, Positive Relationships, Positive Environment.
  8. Special Groups
    • Stress, Post Game/Season Evaluation, Gender Differences, Elite Female Athletes, Special Considerations with Female Athletes, Disabled Persons. Children, Readiness, Dropping out.

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

Conflict Management

There are eight lessons in this course, as follows:

1.         Conflict Management and Anger

  • What is Conflict
  • Conflict Handling Techniques
  • Conflict Handling Styles
  • Comparing Strategies to Handle Conflict
  • Scope and Nature of Anger
  • Approaches to Hanling Anger
  • Anger Management Techniques
  • Dealing with Anger in Yourself and Others

2.         Listening

  • Channels of Communication
  • Stages of Listening
  • Obstacles to Listening
  • Empathic Listening
  • Ground Rules for Listening
  • Listeners in Control
  • Emotions
  • Traps for Listeners

     

3.         Negotiation

  • Scope and Nature of Negotiating
  • The Establishment Group
  • The Community Group
  • Bargaining in Negotiations
  • Win-Win Bargaining or Integrative Bargaining
  • Being a Skilled Negotiator
  • The Joint Problem Solving Approach
  •  Writing a Brief
  • Guidelines
  • Negotiating Mistakes
  • Dealing with Difficult People
  • Finding a Solution

4.         Mediation

  • What is Mediation
  • When is Mediation Called for
  • The Mediators Role
  • The Mediation Process
  • Team Work
  • Mediation Model
  • Alternative Dispute Resolution

5.         Facilitation

  • Scope & Nature of Facilitation
  • Preparing the Facilitation Meeting
  • Attributes of a Good Facilitator
  • Stress and the Fight or Flight Response
  • Symptoms and Effect of Stress
  • A Stress Management Response Program

6.         Balance of Power

  • Problems with Negotiation
  • Problem of Re-entry
  •  Balance of Power
  • Dealing with Power Imbalance
  • Verbal Bullying
  • Asking Questions
  • Information and Experience
  • Agenda Setting
  • Role Playing
  • Needs Exploration
  • Ending a Meeting 

7.         Discussion and Group Work

  • Group Conflict Management Exercises
  • Anger Exercises
  • Listening Exercises
  • Negotiation and Mediation Exercises
  • Joint Problem Solving Exercises
  • Role Play Exercises
  • Conducting Structured Exercises in Small Groups
  • What to Avoid
  • Evaluation

8.         Crisis Analysis and Responses

  • Nature and Scope of a Crisis
  • Response to Crisis
  • Guidelines
  • Interventions
  • Principles and Goals of Crisis Intervention
  • Crisis Intervention Techniques
  • Debriefing
Counselling Techniques

There are 8 lessons in this course:

  1. Psychoanalytic psychotherapy l - Freud, Erikson, Jung
    • Value and relevance of psychotherapy
    • Emergence of psychoanalytical theory
    • Principles of psychoanalytical theory
    • Elements of the personality
    • The notion of conscious and unconscious
    • Anxiety and psychoanalysis
    • Inbuilt psychological coping and damage repair mechanisms
    • Defense mechanisms
    • Freuds psychosexual theory and Eriksons psychosocial theory
    • Jung's perspective on personality
    • Archetypes
    • Recent developments in psychoanalytical theory
    • Goals of psychoanalytical approach
    • Psychoanalytic techniques
    • Analytic framework
    • Free associations
    • Interpretation
    • Dream analysis
    • Resistance
    • Transference
    • Psychoanalytic approach and counselling
    • Personality disorders
    • Critique for psychoanalytic theory
  2. Psychoanalytical psychotherapy ll - Adler
    • Alfred Adler
    • Adler's key concepts
    • Inferiority vs superiority
    • What makes people self interested
    • Social interest and community feeling
    • Individual psychology
    • Psychological types: ruling type, leaning type, avoiding type
    • Sibling relationships
    • Only child
    • First child, second child, youngest child
    • Use of adlerian theory
    • Applications to counselling
    • Freud and Adler
    • Critique
  3. Humanistic/Existential approaches I - Gestalt Therapy; Fritz Perls
    • Introduction
    • Human nature
    • Holistic approach
    • Field theory
    • Figure-formation process
    • Organismic self regulation
    • Focus on the present
    • Resolving dilemmas
    • Personal maturity
    • The effect of contact
    • Effect of energy
    • The experiment
    • Confrontation
    • Gestalt techniques: Internal dialogue, reversal, rehersal, exaggeration, dream work, etc
    • Critique
  4. Humanistic/Existential approaches II - Person-Centred Counselling; Carl Rogers
    • Humanistic therapy
    • Principles of person centred approach
    • Personal attitude of the counsellor
    • Goals of therapt
    • Assessment techniques
    • Areas of application
    • Critique
  5. Rational behavioural therapy - Albert Ellis
    • Rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT
    • Ellis's view of human nature
    • Personality theory
    • Goals and techniques of therapy
    • Therapeutic techniques
    • Cognitive techniques
    • Emotive techniques
    • Use of REBT
    • Critique
  6. Cognitive behavioural therapy - Aaron Beck
    • Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and REBT
    • Premises of CBT
    • Cognitive distortions
    • Use of cognitive therapy
    • Family therapy
    • Modifications to CBT
    • Stress innoculation training program (SIT)
    • Stages of SIT
    • Constructivist modification
  7. Behavioural therapy
    • Contempory behavioural therapy
    • Behavioural approach
    • Goals ant techniques
    • Goals of therapy
    • Use of behaviour therapy
    • Basic ID
    • Critique
  8. Solution-focused counselling
    • Introduction
    • Strategies in solution focussed counselling
    • Engaging the client
    • Constructing pathways for change
    • Generating creative solutions
    • Critique

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

 Professional Practice in Counselling

There are 7 lessons in this course:

  1. Understanding Counselling:
    • The client-counsellor relationship
    • Effective counselling
    • Counselling the counsellor
    • Counsellor’s values
    • Multicultural counselling
  2. Ethics & Confidentiality:
    • Needs
    • A code of ethics
    • Informed consent
    • Right to privacy
    • Legal requirements
    • Use of psychometric tests
    • Ethics and multiple relationships
    • Keeping records.
  3. Understanding the Self:
    • Self-awareness
    • Self-monitoring
    • Self-concept
    • Social Perception
    • Attribution theory
    • Implicit personality theory
    • Relationships
    • Social exchange
    • Love and intimacy.
  4. Personality:
    • What is a healthy personality?
    • Trait approach
    • Psychodynamic approach
    • Humanistic approach
    • Social learning and cognitive approaches.
  5. Emotions & Behaviour:
    • What are emotions?
    • Emotions and Counselling
    • Effect on communication
    • Aspects of emotions
    • Emotional expression and counselling.
  6. Supervision:
    • Why supervision?
    • Working with others
    • Quantity and effectiveness of supervision
    • Personal counselling
    • Dependency
    • Types of supervision.
  7. Referral Practice:
    • Counselling v mental health issues
    • Secondary care counsellors
    • Abnormal psychology
    • Anxiety
    • Depression
    • Schizophrenia
    • Personality disorders

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

 

WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND ABOUT HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS?

There are a number of reasons why we form social and intimate relationships and why they sometimes fail. Most of them are related to our perceptions, which in turn can be affected by a range of other factors, such as our socio-economic or cultural background, gender, education, social learning, personality, experience and so on.  The key influences on relationship formation that have been identified by psychologists are briefly discussed below.

Attractiveness

Physical attractiveness plays a vital role in relationship formation, particularly in the early stages. Research shows that we tend to be attracted to physically attractive people, yet we tend to end up in close relationships with people who are of a similar level of attractiveness to ourselves.  Perhaps we are more comfortable with someone who is not too much more or less attractive that we are.

While attractive people tend to receive more positive responses, in a wide range of situations, very attractive people can suffer from low self-esteem due to the fact that many people only relate to them on a surface level. Also, it appears that physical attractiveness during youth bears no correlation to happiness in later life.

Closeness

Proximity tends to have a positive influence on attraction.  Those who spend much time together, such as at work, are more likely to form a relationship than those who go to a bar in the hope of meeting someone. Proximity bears no relation on the quality of the relationship, however.  

Similarity

Research has consistently found that perceived similarities in terms of such things as age, interests, personality, and education are a good indicator of increased attraction in both short and long-term relationships. Most significant have been findings with regard to similarities of attitudes, beliefs and values (Byrne et al., 1986). Other research (Cattell and Nesselrode, 1967) has shown that those with more similar personalities are likely to have more successful partnerships   

Sometimes people fool themselves into thinking that many similarities exist where they don’t.  The relationship counsellor can work on these areas.

Influence of Others

Most studies have been inconclusive with regard to similarities in the someone else (eg. client and counsellor, teacher, leader, etc) who may be facilitating relationships on the dimension of age, sex and ethnicity, and therapy outcomes. The only significant findings have been with regard to similarities in values.  Here, studies have shown a positive outcome on therapeutic results for such things as wisdom, intellectual pursuits, honesty and knowledge.  It may be because these values are humanistic pertaining to the upkeep of social order.

Certain discrepancies in values between the client and leader or counsellor have also been associated with positive therapeutic outcomes.  These have been with regard to social status and friendships and it has been supposed that the reason for this is due to the fact that these are often the issues for which the client is seeking help.

     

Emergence of relationships

It has been suggested that as relationships develop there are a number of stages.  These stages are not necessarily obvious, nor do they have to be rigid.

Sampling
The individual screens out those that are not in the picture, usually on the basis of superficial information.  The need for different types of relationships means that people may be included in one type of relationship and excluded from others.
 
Bargaining
This is continuous and involves an initial formation of an acquaintanceship followed by an assessment of potential pros and cons.

Commitment

This is mutual recognition that the relationship exists, and there is public or private expression.

Institutionalisation
The relationship may be formalized, e.g. through marriage.

As relationships develop, there is also an increase in the following:

  • Intensity of like or love
  • Depth and breadth of information exchanged
  • Actual and expected length of the relationship
  • Value of resources exchanged - each person invests more resources in the relationship, and analyses their inputs and outputs, and possibly compare the relationship to other relationships
  • Inter-changeability of resources
  • Togetherness…tendency to define themselves as a unit to the outside world.


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Meet some of our academics

Lyn QuirkM.Prof.Ed.; Adv.Dip.Compl.Med (Naturopathy); Adv.Dip.Sports Therapy Over 30 years as Health Club Manager, Fitness Professional, Teacher, Coach and Business manager in health, fitness and leisure industries. As business owner and former department head for TAFE, she brings a wealth of skills and experience to her role as a tutor for ACS.
Tracey JonesWidely published author, Psychologist, Manager and Lecturer. Over 10 years working with ACS and 25 years of industry experience. Qualifications include: B.Sc. (Hons) (Psychology), M.Soc.Sc (social work), Dip. SW (social work), PGCE (Education), PGD (Learning Disability Studies).
Gavin ColePsychologist, Educator, Author, Psychotherapist. B.Sc., Psych.Cert., M. Psych. Cert.Garden Design, MACA Gavin is both a highly experienced Psychologist and tutor. Gavin has over 25 years experience in the Psychology industry, and has been working with ACS since 2001. He has worked in both Australia and England, and has been involved in writing numerous books and courses in Psychology and Counselling


Check out our eBooks

Professional Practice for ConsultantsExplore becoming a consultant. This ebook contains chapters on how to be a consultant, packaging your services, delivering the services, building your resources, finding the work and getting the job, planning and ethics.
Psychological ProfilingPsychological profiling is used to assess anyone from potential new staff and school children to serial killers. It helps you to determine someone’s personality, neuroses, mental health and career suitability. This book provides an excellent overview of psychological profiling techniques and pitfalls.
Psychology DictionaryWritten by professional psychologists, this “dictionary of psychology” contains descriptions for common terms used in Psychology. There are many terms used in the area of Psychology alone, that are explained throughout this text. Other terms have been taken from everyday language and used in a different context to describe psychological phenomena. 66 pages
Counselling HandbookFull of interesting case studies, this ebook is a wonderful introduction to the complex world of the human psyche. Chapters include: Using Counselling, Seeing Behind the Mask, Emotions and Attitudes, Communicating Better, Theory vs Practice, Diffusing Difficult Situations and Golden Rules for Counselors. 43 pages